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Download India & Gujarat History PDF 2020 in Gujarati ‖ RKhack.com

Download India & Gujarat History PDF 2020 in Gujarati ‖ RKhack.com

According to modern genetics, the first humans to arrive at the Indian subcontinent were from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago. However, the earliest known fossils in India date back to 30,000 years. Organized life, including the conversion of food to pastoral care, began in Greater India about 7,000 BCE At the Mehrgarh site, the presence can be attributed to the cultivation of wheat and barley, followed by that of goats, sheep and cattle. By 4,500 BCE, organized life was widespread, and it gradually became the Indus Valley, the first civilization of the Old World, living at the same time as Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. This civilization developed between 2,500 BCE and 1900 BCE in what is today Pakistan and northwestern India and is known for its urbanization, baked brick houses, refined plumbing, and water supply.

 

At the beginning of the second century BCE, a severe drought caused the people of the Indus Valley to disperse from large cities to valleys. About the same time, Indo-Aryan tribes moved to the Punjab from regions to the northwest on several migration waves. The emergence of the Vedic period was reflected in the formation of the Vedas, large collections of hymns of these tribes with established religious traditions, combined with pre-existing religious traditions on the continent, which produced Hinduism. The concept of Varna, a social mobilization program that divides people into groups based on their occupations and abilities, such as priests, warriors, merchants, and merchants, was developed at this time. Toward the end of this period, about 600 BCE, after Indo-Aryan shepherds and pilgrims spread out from the Punjab to the Gangetic plains, large plots of land cleared for agricultural purposes, a second migration took place. The smaller Indo-Aryan nobles, or janapada, were consolidated into larger states, or mahajanapadas. The move to the cities was accompanied by the rise of new self-denial practices in Greater Magadha, including Jainism and Buddhism. These sects introduced new religious ideas, which contradicted the growing influence of Brahmanism and early cultural practices, led by Brahmin priests, who were already associated with the Vedic religion.

 

Most of the Indian subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire, between the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE From the 3rd century BCE onward, Prakrit and Pali literature in the north and Tamil Sangam literature in southern India began to flourish. In the 3rd century BCE, Wootz ore came from southern India and was exported. During the Classical period, various parts of India were ruled by several emperors over the next 1,500 years, among them the dominant Gupta Empire. This period, witnessing the revival of religion and Hinduism, is known as the classical or Golden Age of India. During this time, many aspects of Indian civilization, administration, culture, and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread throughout much of Asia, while the southern states of India began to establish trade links at sea with the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The influence of Indian culture spread to many parts of Southeast Asia, leading to the formation of Indian empires in Southeast Asia (Greater India).

 

Download India & Gujarat History PDF 2020 in Gujarati ‖ RKhack.com

 

             Beginning in India

             Religious Places, Castles, Gardens & Lakes (Ind.)

             Religious Places in Gujarat

             World Heritage Places

             Arrival of European traders in India – 1

             Arrival of European traders in India – 2

             First in Gujarat

             List of British Organization in Gujarati

             List of India Wars

             History of India & Important period

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (1)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (2)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (3)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (4)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (5)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (6)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (7)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (8)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (9)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (10)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (11)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (12)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (13)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (14)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (15)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (16)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (17)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (18)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (19)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (20)

             Freedom Struggle for Independence (21)

             Major events of India (1947 to 2015)

             Easy trick for How to remember India’s state names?

             Gujarat History in Gujarati

             The notable rulers and dynasties (Part – 1)

             The notable rulers and dynasties (Part – 2)

             The notable rulers and dynasties (Part – 3)

             Social & Religious Organizations & Major Wars

             Indian History: The Indian National Congress

             Indian History: The Indian National Congress (1)

             Indian History: The Indian National Congress (2)

             Indian History: The Indian National Congress (3)

             Indian History: Bengal Partition (Part – 1)

             Indian History: Bengal Partition (Part – 2)

             British Committees and Commissions (Part – 1)

             British Committees and Commissions (Part – 2)

             The most Important wars of Indian history

 

The most important event between the 7th and 11th centuries was the Tripartite struggle centered on Kannauj that lasted for more than two centuries between the Pala Empire, the Rashtrakuta Empire, and the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire. Southern India witnessed the rise of many state powers from the middle of the fifth century, most notably Chalukya, Chola, Pallava, Chera, Pandyan and Western Chalukya Empires. The Chola dynasty conquered southern India and successfully invaded parts of Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Bengal in the 11th century. In the early medieval period, Indian figures, including Hindu numbers, contributed to the development of mathematical and astronomical figures in the Arab world.

 

Islamic conquest gained momentum in Afghanistan and Sindh after the eighth century, followed by the attacks of Mahmoud Ghazni.  The Delhi Sultanate was founded in 1206 CE by the Central Asia Turks who ruled much of the northern Indian subcontinent at the beginning of the 14th century, but declined late in the 14th century, and saw the arrival of the Deccan Sultanates. The wealthy Bengal Sultanate also emerged as a regional and political power, lasting for more than three centuries. During this time several powerful Hindu provinces emerged, most notably Vijayanagara, Gajapati, and Ahom, as well as Rajput sites, such as Meewar. In the 15th century Sikhism emerged. Today's first era began in the 16th century, when the Mughal Empire conquered most of India, becoming the world's largest economy and productive power, with a fixed GDP of four times the world's GDP, higher than the European GDP. The Mughals gradually declined in the early 18th century, giving the Maratha, Sikhs, Mysoreans, and Nawabs of Bengal control large areas of the Indian subcontinent.

 

From the middle of the 18th century to the mid-19th century, India's vast territories were gradually weakened by East India Company, a recruited company, operating as an independent state on behalf of the British government. Dissatisfaction with company law in India led to the Indian revolt in 1857, which shook the northern and central parts of India, and led to the dissolution of the company. India was subsequently ruled directly by the British Crown, British Raj. After World War I, a national liberation struggle was launched by the Indian National Congress, led by Mahatma Gandhi, and was known for its nonviolence. Later, the All-India Muslim League will promote a different country with a majority of Muslim nations. The British Empire of India was divided in August 1947 into the Dominion of India (now the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (now the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh), each gaining independence.

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